Patterns of inheritance


Who was Gregor Mendel?  What inferences did he make regarding inheritance?  How do his inferences equate with our understanding of genetics today?  What was his subject of study?  What made his study subject different or special?  What made his work with inheritance different from other work being done at the time (such as with horses or dogs or crops)?


Regarding Mendel’s work:  What is a parental plant?  What is an F1?  An F2?  What kinds of parental plants did Mendel use, with respect to traits they showed?  What did Mendel’s F1 show?  His F2s?  What is a monohybrid cross?  A dihybrid cross? What is the characteristic ratio of traits in the F2 for a monohybrid cross?  In a dihybrid cross?


What is a genotype?  A phenotype?  What is an allele?  What is dominant/recessive?  What is homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, heterozygous?


What is the Law of Segregation?  What is the Law of Independent Assortment?  What do these two laws mean, in terms of events in the production of gametes?  How did Mendel’s observations of F2 ratios for mono- and dihybrid crosses lead him to make his Laws of Inheritance?


What does “Non Mendelian Genetics” refer to?  What is autosomal recessive?


Know and be able to give examples of the following:  Multiple allele genes; codominance; incomplete dominance; pleiotropy; epistasis; polygenics; autosomal dominant; sex- or X-linked recessive; carrier.  Know how the previous are inherited.


What is a pedigree?  Why use a pedigree?


What is polyploidy?  Aneuploidy?  Nondisjunction?  When does nondisjunction occur?  What forms of aneuploidy might result in functional and live human births?



Evidence of evolution


Who were the following people and what did they contribute, in terms of ideas to explain observed changes?  Cuvier, Darwin, Lamarck, Lyell, Malthus, Wallace.


Who was Charles Darwin?  Where did Darwin go and how?  When was this?  What and where was a key place that Darwin made observations of birds and tortoises?  What kinds of birds did Darwin observe and where did they come from?


What is biogeography?  What is comparative morphology?  What is “homology” as it relates to related organisms (such as mammals)?  What are vestigial organs or structures and what is their significance?  What is the fossil record?  What kinds of fossils are always found deeper in the geological layers?  What is radiometric dating?


What is natural selection?  What is fitness?  Adaptation or “adaptive trait”?

What is the definition of evolution?  What is capable of evolving?  What is microevolution?



Processes of evolution (up to the end of 12.3)


What is a gene pool?  What is a mutation?  What other factors can give rise to new characteristics or traits?  What is crossing over?  What is independent assortment?  What is fertilization?  What is chromosomal structural change?


What is an allele?  What is allele frequency?  What is genetic equilibrium?  What equation can we use to measure genetic equilibrium?


What is the effect of natural selection on a population?  What is directional selection?  Stabilizing selection?  Disruptive selection?  Can you identify these from examples?


What are the conditions for genetic equilibrium?  [Hint:  They are in the notes.] What is a balanced polymorphism?  What is “heterozygote advantage”?  What is the effect of nonrandom mating on genetic equilibrium?  What is sexual selection?  What is genetic drift?  What is a “bottleneck”?  “Founder effect”?  “Inbreeding”?  Can you give examples of each or identify each from examples?  Does genetic drift increase or decrease genetic diversity?  What is gene flow?  Can you identify gene flow from an example?  Does gene flow preserve, increase, or decrease genetic diversity?  [Which of the three does gene flow definitely NOT do?]