Exam 2 will cover chapters 4, 5, and 6.

Read the text, so that you have the proper context for the material covered on the exam.

Do not be late for the exam, since by being late you might not be able to take the exam and your grade might be seriously affected.

Some of the questions below apply to the material that will be on the exam.  These are general questions that are open-ended, meaning that the more that one can answer on any specific question, the better-prepared one should be.

What is the cell theory?  What is a cell membrane made out of?  What kind of biological molecule is this?  What is the basic difference between Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes?  What are the following cellular components:  Nucleus, DNA, chromatin, nucleolus, ribosome, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, mitochondrion, lysosome, chloroplast. 

What is diffusion?  Passive diffusion?  Facilitated diffusion?  What is active transport?  Exocytosis?  Endocytosis/phagocytosis?  What is osmosis?

What is an enzyme?  What is activation energy?  What is a substrate and an active site?  What does 'induced fit' mean?  Are enzymes reused?  How specific are enzymes?  That is, can they be used on many different substrates?

What is oxidation?  What is reduction?  Which has more "energy", something that is oxidized or something that is reduced?  In redox reactions, what, exactly, is moving from whatever is being oxidized to whatever is being reduced?  What is the cellular energy molecule called?  What is cellular respiration?  Does cellular respiration generally require oxygen (is it usually aerobic?) Know the equation for cell respiration, glycolysis, citric acid cycle (+ acetalCoA step), electron transport.  Know where each occur.  Know what powers ATP Synthase directly; know exactly what the ETC does and how (produces H+ gradient).  Know the flow electrons in cell respiration; where they come from, what moves them around, and the final electron acceptor.  Know the importance of oxygen, and what happens when there is no oxygen.  Know the function of fermentation and where it occurs.