Exam 4 Review Guide

Chapters 10 & 11
THE EXAM IS SCHEDULED for 2:15 PM on Tues, December the 15th.

DO NOT FORGET to bring your lab book to the final exam.  It represents 40 points for the book itself and 10 points for lab 13, and is therefore a large component of your grade.  I CANNOT take late books.

MAKE SURE you have a scantron and a pencil for the final exam.  The scantron needed is either 882-e (narrow with 50 M.C. on back) or 883-e (wide with short answers on back).  Since there will not be any short answer questions, 883 is not necessary; it scans with 882, however, so both are okay for the exam.

NOTE:  If you cannot competently discuss or address the material in this review, your success with the final exam will be limited severely.  To improve your overall exam grades, you are strongly urged to study for the final exam.  In the past, students who hope to improve a particular letter grade (high D, high C, high B, for example), have been very disappointed when their performance on the final does not change their grade average...  This WILL be the outcome IF your final exam grade is your lowest exam score.  For the final exam score to impact your exam average, it needs to be greater than your lowest exam score by a wide margin.

Chapter 10 – The Stucture and Function of DNA

Know the basic structure of DNA and RNA.  Understand that each is a nucleic acid made out of nucleotides in a long polymer.  Know what the basic “backbone” of the polymer is comprised of. Know that a single nucleic acid is held together with covalent bonds.  Know where hydrogen bonds are found in the DNA double helix.  Know the differences between a DNA and an RNA nucleotide, and which bases each can have.  Know what complimentary means.  Know how DNA replicates, in general, and what semi-conservative means in relation to this replication.

Know the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to polypeptide/protein.  Know what transcription is, what it produces, and where.  Know about mRNA, rRNA (ribosomes), and tRNA.  Know about mRNA codons and tRNA anticodons.  You do NOT need to memorize any codons, but it’s always useful to know that the first amino acid of a protein is Methionine.  Know what translation is.  Know what a stop codon is.  Know what mutations do to DNA and how hey might affect protein production.  Know about initiation, elongation, and termination for transcription AND translation.
For Fall 2015, do not focus on the end of chapter 10, which covers viruses.

Chapter 11 – How Genes are Controlled

Closely review the Operon model from bacteria.  Know what an operon is, and what the several components of an operon are (promoter, operator, structural genes).  Also know about the repressor and what is supposed to do, how it does it, and where it comes from.  Know some things about controlling gene expression in eukaryotes.  Know that sometimes whole chromosomes are inactivated, and be aware of at least one example of this that regularly occurs in cells of women.  Know what introns and exons are, and alternative splicing is.  Know about the purpose or role of homeotic genes (master-control genes).  What is a micro-array for?

Know the basic difference between embryonic and adult stem cells.  Know what the purpose of theraputic cloning is.  What is the main current purpose of reproductive cloning?  How is reproductive cloning accomplished?  What type of organisms are most regularly cloned?

How does cancer develop?  What are oncogenes, proto-oncogenes, tumor supressor genes?  Also, know that while we cannot directly inherit cancer, we can inherit mutated genes that do not correctly control the cell cycle…  What is a carcinogen?  What behavior is tied closely with cancer?


Fun final facts to share with loved ones during the holiday break and/or for New Years:

Know that about 45% of the males in the class will get cancer, and that it will likely be prostate cancer.  Also, know that about 40% of the females in the class will get cancer, and that is will likely be breast cancer.  Know that these cancers are highly survivable, if detected early.  Know that lung cancer is amongst the most deadly, and that for men and women, more die of it than other cancers.  Know that how you expose yourself to risks of various sorts will determine whether you get some of the more serious cancers (e.g., lung), but that other cancers are greatly influenced by genetic predisposition (e.g., prostate and breast).  Cutting back on risks, knowing family history, and self-awareness can all lead to a better chance of not dying early from cancer.