Honors Contract Information
Either an “A” or “B” grade in the course and completion
of a Research Paper (formatted according to 6th edition APA
guidelines, ten pages of body [typed, double-spaced, no more
than 12 points font and 1” margins]), on a mutually-agreed
subject related to biology.
Citations to be used where required or applicable. Format for citations
supplied separately. Rough
draft due no later than three weeks before the final exam; final
copy due by the last class period. See the following
guidelines for term papers required for a different
Individual contracts will include the following description:
“Prepare a research paper of ten double-spaced pages, with citations as required and applicable. Citation format supplied separately. Rough draft due no later than three weeks before the final exam. Final copy due by the last class period. Subject:_________________________________”
The use of citations and the format required in a citations section
References must be included in text by last name and year of publication, in parentheses following the information being cited. See the example below.
Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, or shiitake in the vernacular, is a basidiomycete of the family Tricholomataceae. Shiitake ranks second in U.S. mushroom production after the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus [Lang.] Imbach) (USDA, 2007), and second in world mushroom production after the button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus [Lang.] Imbach) (Chang, 2005). Shiitake are sold either fresh or dried and are one of the most important fungal constituents of the cuisine of countries such as Japan and China. Shiitake continue to gain popularity in Western countries. In the United States alone, shiitake consumption increased from 1,343 metric tons (3 million pounds) in 1993 to 3,039 metric tons in 2006 (6.8 million pounds) (USDA, 2007). Extant relatives of L. edodes are also comestible and contribute to a diverse genetic pool for the genus Lentinula Earle.
Shiitake has been known generically as Lentinus Fr. and Collybia (Fr.) Staude among many other names (Pegler 1975a, 1975b). In the early 1980’s, Pegler (1983) assigned shiitake to the genus Lentinula. Currently, there are six species that are generally recognized in the genus Lentinula, three (L. edodes, L. lateritia [Berk.] Pegler, and L. novaezelandiae [Stev.] Pegler) are of Asia-Australasian distribution, while the remaining three (L. boryana (Berk. & Mont.) Pegler, L. guarapiensis (Speg.) Pegler, and L. raphanica (Murrill) Mata & R.H. Petersen) are distributed in the Americas. Recent work has suggested that the Asia-Australasian-distributed species comprise a single biological species as evidenced by their ability to interbreed (Shimomura et al. 1992; Guzman et al. 1997), with the indication that the species could all be classified as L. edodes according to a biological species approach. However, Hibbett and others (Hibbett 1992, Hibbett et al. 1995, Hibbett and Donohue 1996, Hibbett et al. 1998) advise against a single Asia-Australasian biological species classification and advocate distinct phylogenetic species to delineate the unique, divergent genetic populations of shiitake possibly existing as monophyletic groups. It is clear that L. edodes and L. boryana remain separate biological species, unable to interbreed (Mata and Guzmán 1989, Guzman et al. 1997). Unfortunately, no living specimens of L. guarapiensis are available for study, so our understanding of the Lentinula representatives distributed in the Americas is limited.
Citations from the above example:
Chang, S. 2005. Witnessing the development of the mushroom industry in China. In: Tan et al. (eds.) Proc. 5th International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Acta Edulis Fungi 12:3-19.
Guzman, G., D. Salmones, and F. Tapia. 1997. Lentinula boryana: morphological variations, taxonomic position, distribution and relationships with Lentinula edodes and related species. Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute 35:1-28
Hibbett, D. 1992. Towards a phylogenetic classification for shiitake: taxonomic history and molecular perspectives. Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute 30:30-42.
Hibbett, D. and M. Donoghue. 1996. Implications of phylogenetic studies for conservation of genetic diversity in shiitake mushrooms. Conservation Biology 10:1321-1327.
Hibbett, D., K. Hansen, and M. Donoghue. 1998. Phylogeny and biogeography of Lentinula inferred from an expanded rDNA dataset. Mycological Research 102:1041-1049.
Mata, G., and G. Guzmán. 1989. Hibridación entre una cepa Mexicana de Lentinus boryanus y una Asiática de Lentinus edodes. Revista MexIcana de Micologia 5:77-80.
Pegler, D. 1975a. The classification of the genus Lentinus Fr. (Basidiomycota). Kavaka 3:11-20.
Pegler, D. 1975b. The genus Lentinus: a world monograph. Kew Bulletin Additional Series 10:1-281.
Pegler, D. 1983. The genus Lentinula (Tricholomataceae tribe Collybieae). Sydowia 36:227-239.
Shimomura, N., K. Hasebe, Y. Nakai-Fukumasa, and M. Komathu. 1992. Intercompatibility between geographically distant strains of shiitake. Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute 30:26-29.
USDA (United States Department of Agriculture). (2007) Mushroom Production. Keystone Ag Digest, United States Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Statistics Service, Early September, Vol 7, No. 17 (see “Pennsylvania Publications” at www.nass.usda.gov/pa)
Some additional examples of citations:
Agricultural Production Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Japan. 1980. The Standards of Judgement of Classification; Shiitake mushroom; Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing.
Chang, S. 1993. Mushrooms biology: The impact on mushroom production and mushroom products. In: S. Chang, J. Buswell, and S. Chiu (eds.), Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Henrion, B., G. Chevalier, and F. Martin. 1994. Typing truffle species by PCR amplification of the ribosomal DNA spacers. Mycological Research 98:37-43.
Klassen, G., and J. Buchko. 1990. Subrepeat structure of the intergenic region in the ribosomal DNA of the oomycetous fungus Pythium ultimum. Current Genetics 17:125-127.
Royse, D., and M. Nicholson. 1993. Allozymes, ribosomal DNA and breeding in Lentinula. Reports of the Tottori Mycological Institute 31:162-167.
Yoon, C., D. Glawe, and P. Shaw. 1991. A method for rapid small-scale preparation of fungal DNA. Mycologia 83:835-838.