Micro 20 Review Exam 1

Suggested material for review.  Do not expect that all of this will be covered on the exam, or that the exam will only cover the suggested material itself.  DO read the chapters in the text, go over the notes, and ASK QUESTIONS of the professor if you have any.


The exam will only cover chapters 1-5.

On exam day, be prepared with a scantron (#883-E) and a pencil.  Do not be late for the exam.  After the exam, we will do some laboratory work.


Understand the concepts involved with scientific nomenclature.  Be able to discuss scientific names described in the notes.

How are organisms classified at the domain level and what are these domains?  What are the main differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes?  What are characteristics of the kingdoms within the Eukarya?  Compare and contrast plants, animals, fungi, and protists.

Are viruses living?  What are characteristics of this group?

Describe Pasteur’s experimentation to disprove spontaneous generation.

Be prepared to discuss the contributions of two important scientists of your choice from the golden age of microbiology.

How is a gram stain performed and what does each of the stains/solutions do during the procedure?

What is staining, in general, useful for?

What are the different types of microscopes best used for?  Which gives the highest magnification and best resolution?  Which use light to view the specimen?  Which require a fluorescent marker?

Be able to discuss the concepts related to tonicity – Hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic.  Know what happens to a cell placed in any of those conditions.

Know the mechanisms whereby cells transport things into and out of the cell itself (i.e., passive transport and active transport mechanisms).

Be able to identify various bacterial cell shapes and arrangements.

Know the components of prokaryote and eukaryote cells, with special understanding of the prokaryote cell walls.

Know the general processes of glycolysis, cell respiration, and fermentation.  Be familiar with the main pathway of glucose metabolism, but also have a grasp of where proteins and fats might be catabolized.  Focus on electron transfer and the role it plays in aerobic respiration.  Be prepared to state a working definition for fermentation.

Understand the difference and importance of oxidation and reduction, especially as related to cell energy harvesting pathways.  Know oxidative phosphorylation, substrate level phosphorylation, and photophosphorylation in general terms.

Know the differences, in general, between photoheterotrophs, photoautotrophs, chemoheterotrophs, and chemoautotrophs.

Know what an enzyme is and what they do for living cells.