Essay questions:

Be able to discuss the paths for the flow of genetic information from a bacterium [essay]

Be able to explain the basics of PCR [essay]

Describe what ELISA is in general terms [essay]

Explain the importance of the following with respect to biotechnology: vectors, bacteriophages, recombination [essay]

Major groups of organisms and how to classify them using a phylogenetic approach [essay]


Chapter 17

Know about the adaptive immunity

Know the humoral and cellular aspects, and what cells are responsible for each

Know how B and T cells mature and how each is activated, and what happens when each is activated

Know about antigens (including epitopes) and antibodies (including structure and valence); what is an immunoglobin?

How do antibodies do their jobs?  Consider agglutination, opsonization, etc.

Know the three classes of T cells (T-H, T-C, T-Reg) and their roles in immunity

Know about antigen presenting cells and how they present the antigen (eg. B cells use an MHC)

Know the basics of how immune system memory works

Finally, know about natural vs acquired and active vs passive immunity

Chapter 8

Know the structure of DNA and RNA, and how DNA and RNA are synthesized.  Know how DNA is replicated.

Know how proteins are produced (transcription and translation)?

What are regulator mechanisms?  Inducible, repressible, and catabolite repression?

What are mutations and what kinds of mutations are there?  What causes mutations?

What are the three mechanisms of recombination?

What are plasmids and transposons? 

Chapter 9

Describe the PCR reaction

Utility and importance of E.coli, as well as restriction enzymes, in biotechnology.

What is "recombinant DNA".

Understand what restriction enzymes are, how they are named, what a recognition sequence is, sticky vs. blunt ends.

Important terms:  Vector, Clone, Library, Transformation, Plasmid, TiPlasmid, Protoplast fusion, Gene gun, Agrobacterium, Direct selection, Replica plating, Primer, Polymerase, Restriction enzyme.

Chapter 10

Major differences and similarities between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Major characteristics and the differences and similarities between the Domains Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya.

Major characteristics of Kingdoms Animalia, Plantae, Protista, and Fungi.

How a genus or a species is defined for Eukaryotes and also for Bacteria.

Serological testing and phage typing what is they and what are they based on?

Chapter 12

Helminthes classification, differentiation between free-living and parasitic forms.

Characteristics of flatworms and roundworms; differentiation between flukes and tapeworms.

General understanding of transmission route of parasitic worms and arthropods.

Chapter 13 (may or may not be on exam)

What a virus is, including general classification of viruses and differentiation of viruses as nonliving rather than living.  Criteria used to classify viruses.

How a viral species is differentiated or defined; Viral structures and general forms.