Essay Questions:
State why antibiotics should not be prescribed for a cold.
Describe the spikes of HIV and how they help it infect a cell
Describe the spikes of H1N1 and how they contribute to the virus' infectious cycle
Define adjuvant

Ch. 15

Review entry routes for pathogens; mucous membranes (gastrointestinal, genitourinary, respiratory, etc), skin, & parenteral (and also portals of exit)

Know ID 50 and LD 50 concepts

Understand how bacteria can damage and penetrate cells/tissues

Review siderophores/transferrins & toxins (lots here)
Be able to associate general pathogenic properties to specific kinds of organisms (e.g., viruses produce cytopathic effects, fungi release toxins, etc)


Ch. 18

Review vaccines and the basic kinds of vaccines; know how a vaccine works; be familiar with the kinds of vaccine used for the flu, MMR, DPT (TDaP), Haemophilus influenzae, rabies, HPV and rabies

DonŐt go into diagnostic immunology, but do remember ELISA, since there may be some questions on it!


Ch. 19

Understand what hemolytic disease of the newborn is (HDNB)
Know the difference between acquired and congential immunodeficiency

Review the section on Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and associated details on the HIV virus; know how it compromises the immune system; how it gets into a helper T cell; what it does once it's in a helper T cell

Bonus material
Understand the basics of antibiotic resistance in bacteria

Understand the basics of the influenza virus